Question: What are tokens in sociology?

The term token has also been used in the sociological literature to refer to persons (usu- ally women or minorities) who are hired, admitted or appointed to a group because of their. difference from other members, perhaps to serve as “proof” that the group does not discrimi- nate against such people.

What is a token employee?

By definition, token employees in a workplace are known to be few; hence, their alleged high visibility among the staff subjects them to greater pressure to perform their work at higher production standards of quality and volume and to behave in the expected, stereotypical manner.

What does it mean to be a token friend?

Being the ‘token Black friend’ means you’re always trying to find a balance between educating your friends on topics of race and protecting their fragile feelings. If you’re too harsh or too openly critical of their ignorance, they push back.

Where does the term token come from?

token (n.)

Meaning “coin-like piece of stamped metal” is first recorded 1590s. Older sense of “evidence” is retained in by the same token (mid-15c.), originally “introducing a corroborating circumstance” [OED]. token (adj.) “nominal,” 1915, from token (n.). In integration sense, attested by 1960.

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What is Kanter’s theory of tokenism?

7 pages. Kanter’s tokenism theory argues that once tokens reach a tipping point of 15 percent representation in the work place, they begin to experience fewer work place problems.

What does it mean to call someone a token?

1a : representing no more than a symbolic effort : minimal, perfunctory token resistance token integration. b : serving or intended to show absence of discrimination a token female employee. 2 : done or given as a token especially in partial fulfillment of an obligation or engagement a token payment.

What does token Indian mean?

If you hear someone talking about the token Indian in the group, it’s an offensive comment. It means that there was need for at least one person to be included regardless of qualifications, and so someone was chosen to be that token person.

What does token boyfriend mean?

A token boyfriend is a guy who is the only male in his friendship group of females. So, when hanging out with the group, the guy will be their token boyfriend. … Then, a token boyfriend was described as someone who gave you all the benefits of being in a relationship without the romantic and sexual intimacy.

What does token black character mean?

Token black guy (n.) –A black character deliberately featured in a show or movie for the sake of racial diversity.

What is another word for tokenism?

What is another word for tokenism?

lip service duplicity
empty talk hollow words
hypocrisy hypocritical respect
insincerity jive
lie lip devotion

What is token analysis?

In computer science, lexical analysis, lexing or tokenization is the process of converting a sequence of characters (such as in a computer program or web page) into a sequence of tokens (strings with an assigned and thus identified meaning). …

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What is a token child?

SHOP NOW. The token Black kid is when you are the only Black kid in a sea full of white kids. The thing about being a token Black kid is that it makes you responsible for your entire race. Your actions equal the actions of your race, and any questions about your race, you are responsible for answering.

What is the synonym of token?

symbol, sign, emblem, badge, representation, indication, mark, index, manifestation, expression, pledge, demonstration, recognition. evidence, attestation, proof. 2’he kept the menu as a token of their golden wedding’ memento, souvenir, keepsake, reminder, record, trophy, relic, remembrance, memorial.

Who coined tokenism?

Rosabeth Kanter (1977) greatly expanded and formalized the concept of tokenism by in- cluding it as one of three major components of her theory of organizational behavior. That theory grew out of her study of a large corporation, “Indsco,” which had recently begun to sexually integrate its management ranks.

What is Kanter theory of structural empowerment?

Kanter’s (1993) theory of structural empowerment includes a discussion of organizational behavior and empowerment. According to this theory, empowerment is promoted in work environments that provide employees with access to information, resources, support, and the opportunity to learn and develop.

What is glass ceiling in gender?

Glass ceiling refers to the fact that a qualified person whishing to advance within the hierarchy of his/her organization is stopped at a lower level due to a discrimination most often based on sexism or racism. The glass ceiling refers thus to vertical discrimination most frequently against women in companies.

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